In the past the Scheldt was an important fishing area. Today fishing is limited to the capture of shrimp, sole, eel and cockles in the Westerscheldt. Only a few dozen professional fishersmen are active on the Westerscheldt. On the Sea Schelt barely any professional fishing takes place. Recreational fishing can be found in the entire estuary.
Research and monitoring in Flanders and the Netherlands concerning fisheries mainly concerns stock assessments. On top of that, ecotoxicologic studies and studies concerning support for the fisheries sector are being carried out.